Protection of fruit trees for the winter, damage to the bark of fruit trees by loads
If large areas of cortex have been measured on them, the question arises whether they should be uprooted and new ones planted. The dying bark in the bone bark is accompanied by the release of gum (glue).
In them, the ability to form tissue is much worse than in seeds. Therefore, special attention must be paid to bone rocks.
Protection of fruit trees from frostbite
There are two types of damage from low temperatures: frost burst cracks and burns. Frost bolts are damage to fruit tree trunks in the form of a radial crack caused by the sharp cooling of the wood. This phenomenon, together with sunburned tree bark, is observed in late winter and early spring when the bark is heated during the day and cooled down at night. In order to prevent such damage, attention must be paid to the selection of resistant varieties.
It is very useful to vaccinate young trees of winter-hardy varieties with low resistance varieties. This is especially true for species such as apple, pear, plum, and cherry.
Bundles to protect the bark of trees from frostbite A simple and affordable way to protect young tree straps from low temperatures is to tie them up with different materials. In fruit-bearing trees, where a cork layer is formed on the bark surface as a result of bark dying, the strapping of the bark can be replaced with a whitewash.
It is more convenient to tie fruit trees, such as stamps and bases of skeletal branches, with newspapers or dense light-colored paper. As noted by gardeners, strapping is a good way to save from the above-mentioned damage. It is only necessary to carefully tie up their straps and bases of skeletal branches and make sure that they are not torn by the wind.
Not a bad strapping material is vinyl and plasticized mesh, which straps in the form of free cylinders. The bottom edge of the mesh is deepened into the ground by 3-5 cm. They are not removed from the tree for several years. It is possible to tie straps with the remnants of toluene or rubric, but the dark surface must be whitened with lime. Suitable strapping materials are branches of coniferous trees, dry stems of raspberry, sunflower, reeds, polymer nets of industrial waste, etc.
It is not recommended to tie straw and hay straws as these materials are bait for mice as they may contain seed residues. For the same reasons, corn stalks are not quite suitable. They are often left with sprouts that are not filled, if not full of seeds.
If the gardener has not tied up fruit trees, especially low-sensitivity varieties, stamps, and the base of the skeletal branches, it is necessary to whitewash at least 50 cm with 20% freshly smothered lime with the addition of copper or iron sulfate. It is necessary to whitewash in warm weather at the end of November and the beginning of December. It is important that the lime solution on the bark does not freeze, but dries out. Frozen mortar is easily washed away by thaws and rains. In the second half of winter or in early spring, if the lime is washed away, it is whitened again in warm weather. To keep lime better on the bark, add 30-40 g to the solution of 10 liters of water of flour paste or 15-20 g of heated carpentry glue. If there is no possibility to prepare lime, you can buy whitewash in garden shops.
Protecting fruit trees from loads In addition to low temperatures, rodents (a forest mouse, a vole, a water rat, and hares) do great damage to the dies and skeletal branches. Rodents (forest mouse and common vole) damage the strains under snow in winter, making moves on the soil surface. These rodents make it very effective to trample snow around tree strains after snowfall into the thaw. From autumn onward, the soil in the garden must be excavated, especially at the base of the boles.
There should be no hay or straw haystack around the garden. Peat chips or sawdust soaked in kerosene are scattered around the tree boles. If there are large numbers of mice, poisoned baits are used as a last resort.
A water rat can damage trees that grow close to water bodies. It eats up its roots in autumn or winter. Damaged young trees dry up, bend over, and are easily pulled out of the soil. Water rats are caught with arc traps and rats.
How to protect the bark of young trees from hares
Rabbits do great harm to young trees, eating bark on stamps and skeletal branches and tearing young shoots. These animals love the bark of apple trees and pears very much, with fewer bone species, especially plums and apricots. They chew off the bark with their front teeth and do less damage to the cambium, so the wounds heal better. The most effective way to fight hares is to fence the area with a metal mesh of at least 1.5 m high or to tie straps and skeletal branches with the same materials as from burns.
There are many recipes, so-called repellents, that is, various substances that have an unpleasant smell and thus scare away rodents from fruit trees. Prescriptions can be found on the Internet. They can also be purchased in garden shops. Repellents are used to cover strains only when there is a threat of damage to trees by rodents.
In addition to the damage to boles and skeletons, damage to the root system of fruit trees is also dangerous. This danger is particularly high in severe snowless winters. To prevent such damage, it is necessary to insulate the root system of undersized rootstocks and bone rootstocks. For this purpose, humus, peat, leaves, and various compost are used, applying them around the boles with a diameter of 10-15 cm in the crown. If the roots are damaged, the growth of the trees becomes significantly weaker, the leaves become light green and the fruits crumble. For such trees, it is important to provide the roots with sufficient water and nutrients in the next vegetation period. If the right conditions are not created to restore the root system, the tree gradually weakens and then dies.
Generative buds freeze in winter in fruit trees, especially bone trees. Most often, such freezing occurs in the second half of winter, when after a long period of warming there is a sharp cooling. There is almost no effective protection against such damage. However, it is possible to partially prevent damage to the generative buds by selecting varieties with a long period of deep rest and the right choice of planting location, despite the fact that the generative buds on the southern and southwestern slopes will be more damaged. Flowers and young ovaries of fruit trees can also be damaged by spring frosts.
In order to minimize such damage, early flowering species and varieties are not recommended to be planted on the lower slopes of the southern side. During frosts, if possible, trees should be sprinkled. It is also useful to make smoke heaps in the garden. Often it is enough to raise the air temperature by 2-3 °C to save the flowers or young ovary from damage.