THC vs CBD Ratios: Finding the Best Ratio for Anxiety and Depression
When it comes to managing anxiety and depression, traditional treatments like therapy and medication can be helpful, but some people may also seek alternative options. Cannabis, specifically THC and CBD, has gained popularity as a potential treatment for these mood disorders. However, with so many THC and CBD products available, it can be overwhelming to choose the right one. In this article, we will explore the differences between THC and CBD, how they interact and which one may be better for anxiety and depression. We’ll also discuss the best THC to CBD ratio, methods of consumption and important precautions to consider.
What’s the connection between cannabis and anxiety and depression?
Cannabis has gained a lot of attention for its potential therapeutic benefits in treating anxiety and depression. However, the relationship between cannabis and mental health is still a topic of debate among researchers and medical professionals. Some studies have shown that cannabis use can alleviate symptoms of anxiety and depression, but other studies have found that it can worsen these conditions.
So, what is the connection between cannabis and anxiety and depression?
1. The impact of THC and CBD: Cannabis contains compounds called cannabinoids, which are responsible for its therapeutic effects. Two of the primary cannabinoids found in cannabis are THC and CBD. THC is psychoactive and can cause feelings of euphoria or intoxication, while CBD is non-psychoactive and has a relaxing, calming effect. Research suggests that THC can worsen anxiety in some individuals, while CBD may have anti-anxiety properties.
2. The role of the endocannabinoid system: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complex network of receptors and neurotransmitters in the brain and body that helps regulate various bodily functions, including mood and stress levels. Cannabis can interact with the ECS and affect its ability to regulate these functions. This is why some individuals may experience anxiety or depression as a side effect of cannabis use.
3. Personal factors: The relationship between cannabis and anxiety and depression can also depend on individual factors such as genetics, past experiences, and current mental state. For example, someone with a history of anxiety may be more susceptible to experiencing anxiety as a side effect of cannabis use.
It is important to note that the relationship between cannabis and mental health is complex and may vary from person to person. It is crucial to consult with a medical professional before using cannabis to treat anxiety or depression. Additionally, understanding the importance of THC and CBD ratios and choosing the right strain can also greatly impact the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis use. For more information on THC and CBD ratios and choosing the right strain, check out our articles on the importance of THC and CBD ratios in strain selection and how to choose the right strain based on THC and CBD ratios.
Understanding THC and CBD
When it comes to cannabis, the two most well-known compounds are THC and CBD. Both substances bring about their effects via interaction with the human endocannabinoid system. However, what exactly are these compounds, and how do they differ in function? Understanding the properties of THC and CBD is crucial to identify which compound can provide optimal results for anxiety and depression sufferers. Let’s dive into the details of each compound and the way they interact with each other.
What is THC?
THC or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is a psychoactive compound found in the cannabis plant. It is responsible for the “high” that users experience when they consume cannabis products. THC interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) and binds to the CB1 receptors in the brain, causing a release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with pleasure and reward.
Here is a table summarizing some key information about THC:
|Psychoactive||Produces a high or altered state of consciousness|
|CB1 Receptor Agonist||Activates CB1 receptors in the brain|
|Analgesic||Reduces pain by blocking pain signals in the nervous system|
|Appetite Stimulant||Increases appetite and food intake|
|Anti-Nausea||Reduces nausea and vomiting|
While THC can have some medical benefits, its psychoactive effects and potential for dependence make it a controversial treatment option for anxiety and depression. However, some patients may find relief from their symptoms with a carefully managed THC regimen. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits with a healthcare provider before using cannabis products for anxiety or depression.
What is CBD?
CBD, or cannabidiol, is one of the many chemical compounds, known as cannabinoids, that are found in the cannabis plant. Unlike THC, CBD does not cause intoxication or euphoria, making it a non-psychoactive ingredient. Instead, CBD is known for its potential therapeutic effects, including reducing anxiety and depression, alleviating pain, and easing inflammation.
Here are some more detailed facts about CBD:
|CBD is non-psychoactive||CBD does not cause a “high” or feeling of euphoria.|
|CBD interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system||The endocannabinoid system regulates various functions of the body, such as mood, pain perception, and sleep. CBD interacts with the endocannabinoid system’s receptors to promote homeostasis.|
|CBD can be derived from hemp or marijuana||Both hemp and marijuana are varieties of the cannabis plant. Hemp is defined by law as having less than 0.3% THC, while marijuana typically has higher levels of THC. CBD can be extracted from either plant, but CBD derived from hemp is legal federally in the US.|
|CBD has multiple potential therapeutic effects||CBD has been studied for its potential effects on anxiety, depression, pain, inflammation, seizures, and neurological disorders. While CBD’s exact mechanisms of action are not fully understood, it is believed to support the body’s own natural healing processes.|
|Research on CBD is ongoing||Due to CBD’s potential therapeutic effects, research on its safety and efficacy is ongoing. While some studies have shown promising results, more research is needed to fully understand how CBD works and how it can be used to improve health.|
CBD has emerged as a potential alternative to traditional pharmaceuticals for those looking for natural ways to manage anxiety, depression, and other health conditions. While more research is needed, CBD’s safety profile and potential benefits make it a promising new avenue for healthcare.
How do THC and CBD interact?
THC and CBD are two of the most well-known and studied cannabinoids found in cannabis plants. They both interact with the body’s endocannabinoid system, although in different ways. Here is a comparison of how THC and CBD interact:
|Produces a psychoactive effect and can cause feelings of euphoria||Does not produce a psychoactive effect and may often be used for its calming properties|
|Binds directly to CB1 receptors in the central nervous system, producing its effects||Interacts with various receptors in the body, including CB1 and CB2 receptors, but does not bind directly to them|
|Can cause anxiety and paranoia in some individuals, particularly with high doses or in those who are sensitive to its effects||May have anxiety-reducing properties and has been studied as a treatment for anxiety disorders|
|Commonly used for pain relief, nausea, and appetite stimulation||May be helpful for pain relief, inflammation, and other conditions, but is not as commonly used for these purposes as THC|
THC and CBD interact differently with the body and have distinct effects. THC is often used for its psychoactive effects and for pain and symptom relief, while CBD is usually employed for its calming properties and benefits for anxiety and inflammation. It’s important to note that the interactions between THC and CBD can vary depending on the individual and the specific ratio of each cannabinoid consumed, which is why finding the right ratio is essential for people seeking to use cannabis for medicinal purposes.
THC vs CBD: Which One is Better for Anxiety and Depression?
When it comes to treating anxiety and depression with cannabis, the question of whether THC or CBD is better can be perplexing. Both THC and CBD have shown promise in alleviating symptoms, but they work in different ways and have different pros and cons. To shed some light on the matter, let’s take a closer look at the properties of THC and CBD and how they interact, as well as the possible benefits and drawbacks of each cannabinoid for anxiety and depression.
Pros and Cons of THC for Anxiety and Depression
THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, is a psychoactive compound found in cannabis. While it is known for providing a euphoric high, it also has potential benefits for anxiety and depression. However, when it comes to using THC for these conditions, there are both pros and cons to consider.
- THC has been shown to have anxiolytic properties, meaning it may have the ability to reduce anxiety levels.
- It may also have antidepressant properties, as it has been found to increase levels of serotonin in the brain.
- THC can provide immediate relief for symptoms of anxiety and depression, as it can help to reduce feelings of stress and promote relaxation.
- It may also help to increase creativity and reduce inhibitions, allowing for a more positive mindset.
- THC can provide a sense of euphoria and pleasure, which may be helpful in breaking negative thought patterns.
- THC can cause increased anxiety and paranoia in some individuals, especially in high doses.
- It may also cause dizziness, confusion, and impaired judgment, which can exacerbate symptoms in some people.
- THC has the potential to become addictive and may cause withdrawal symptoms if used regularly or excessively.
- It can also have negative effects on cognitive function and may impair memory and attention span.
- THC can cause dry mouth, red eyes, and an increased heart rate, which can be uncomfortable or alarming for some individuals.
While THC may offer potential benefits for anxiety and depression, it is important to weigh the pros and cons before use. It may be helpful for some individuals, but can also exacerbate symptoms in others. As with any medication or treatment, use should be monitored closely and in consultation with a healthcare professional.
Pros and Cons of CBD for Anxiety and Depression
When it comes to using CBD for anxiety and depression, there are both pros and cons to consider. Here are some of them:
- Non-intoxicating: Unlike THC, CBD doesn’t produce any psychoactive effects, which means it won’t make you feel “high.”
- Legal: CBD is legal in many countries, which makes it more accessible than THC for some people.
- Minimal side effects: CBD is generally considered safe and doesn’t produce many side effects, unlike some prescription medications for anxiety and depression.
- May improve mood: CBD has been shown to have antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in animal studies, and some preliminary research in humans suggests it may have similar benefits.
- May reduce anxiety symptoms: There’s some evidence that CBD may help alleviate symptoms of anxiety, such as social anxiety disorder and PTSD.
- May reduce inflammation: Inflammation has been linked to depression and anxiety, and CBD has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties.
- Inconsistent results: While some studies suggest that CBD may be effective for reducing anxiety and depression symptoms, other studies have found no significant effects.
- Interacts with other medications: CBD can affect the metabolism of some medications, which could potentially increase their effects or side effects.
- Quality control issues: CBD products are not regulated by the FDA, which means it can be difficult to know exactly what you’re getting and whether it’s safe or effective.
- May cause drowsiness: While CBD is generally well-tolerated, some people may experience drowsiness or fatigue as a side effect.
- Expensive: High-quality CBD products can be expensive, which may make them less accessible to some people.
It’s important to weigh these pros and cons when considering using CBD for anxiety and depression, and to talk to a healthcare provider before trying any new treatments. Additionally, it’s important to keep in mind that while CBD may help some people with these conditions, it is not a cure-all and may not work for everyone.
Best THC to CBD Ratios for Anxiety and Depression
When it comes to finding the best THC to CBD ratios for anxiety and depression, it can be a bit of a trial and error process. The optimal THC to CBD ratio is unique to each individual, as it depends on various factors such as the severity of symptoms, personal tolerance, and the desired effect.
Some of the most recommended ratios include:
- 1:0 (pure CBD): For those who want to avoid the psychoactive effects of THC, a CBD-only product is the best option. CBD has been proven to provide relief for anxiety and depressive symptoms, without causing the “high” associated with THC.
- 2:1 (CBD-dominant): This ratio is recommended for those who want the benefits of both THC and CBD, but with a higher concentration of CBD. CBD is known to counteract the psychoactive effects of THC, which can help alleviate anxious or nervous feelings.
- 1:1 (Balanced): This ratio is ideal for those who want equal parts THC and CBD. It provides a moderate psychoactive effect from the THC, while the CBD helps balance out the potential anxiety-inducing effects of THC.
- 1:2 (THC-dominant): For those who want the maximum therapeutic benefits of THC, but with additional calming effects from CBD, a THC-dominant ratio may be the best option. However, this ratio may not be suitable for everyone, as it can cause psychoactive effects that intensify feelings of anxiety or paranoia in some individuals.
It’s important to note that the effectiveness of each ratio will depend on individual circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional or knowledgeable budtender can help guide you toward the best THC to CBD ratio for your specific needs. Additionally, it’s recommended to start with small doses and gradually increase to find what works best for you.
Products with Recommended THC to CBD Ratios
There are several products on the market with recommended THC to CBD ratios for anxiety and depression. Some of the products are:
- ACDC: This strain has a high CBD to THC ratio of 20:1, making it a popular choice among those seeking relief from anxiety and depression without the psychoactive effects of THC.
- Cannatonic: With a CBD to THC ratio of 1:1, Cannatonic provides a balanced high that can help alleviate anxiety while still providing a mild euphoria.
- Harlequin: Known for its high CBD to THC ratio of 5:2, Harlequin is a popular strain for those seeking relief from anxiety and depression without the strong psychoactive effects of THC.
- Charlotte’s Web: This strain has a 20:1 CBD to THC ratio and is known for its ability to reduce seizures in children with epilepsy. It can also be helpful for anxiety and depression without the high associated with THC.
Other products with recommended THC to CBD ratios include tinctures, edibles, and topicals. It is important to note that the effectiveness of these products can vary depending on the individual and their specific needs. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before trying any new cannabis products for anxiety and depression.
How to Use Cannabis for Anxiety and Depression?
For those considering using cannabis as a potential treatment for anxiety and depression, using it properly is crucial. With the plethora of strains, consumption methods, and dosages available, it can be overwhelming to know where to start. However, by understanding how to choose the right strain, consumption method, and dosage/timing, individuals can maximize the potential benefits of cannabis while minimizing potential risks and side effects. In this section, we will explore the various considerations and best practices for using cannabis as a treatment for anxiety and depression.
Choosing the Right Strain
When it comes to using cannabis for anxiety and depression, choosing the right strain is essential. Here are some factors to consider before making a choice:
- Indica vs Sativa: There are two main types of cannabis strains, Indica and Sativa. Indica strains tend to be more calming and relaxing, while Sativa strains can be more energizing and uplifting. For anxiety and depression, Indica strains are generally recommended due to their calming effects.
- CBD vs THC: As we discussed earlier, CBD and THC have different effects on anxiety and depression. Strains with high levels of CBD and low levels of THC are recommended for anxiety and depression. Look for strains with a CBD:THC ratio of at least 2:1.
- Aroma and Flavor: The aroma and flavor of a strain can also play a role in its effects. Some people find that certain aromas, like lavender or pine, are soothing and calming, while others prefer fruity or earthy flavors. Experiment with different strains to find the one that works best for you.
- Potency: The potency of a strain can also affect its effects. Higher potency strains may be more effective for some people, but can also come with more intense side effects. Start with a lower potency strain and gradually increase the dosage as needed.
- Origin: Finally, consider the origin of the strain. Different regions may have strains that are better suited for different conditions. For example, certain strains from Europe or Asia may be more effective for anxiety and depression than strains from the Americas.
Keep in mind that everyone’s body reacts differently to cannabis, so it may take some trial and error to find the right strain for you. Consult with a medical professional and do your own research before making a decision.
Methods of Consumption
There are various methods of consuming cannabis for anxiety and depression, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Here are some common methods of consumption and the pros and cons of each:
|Method of Consumption||Pros||Cons|
|Smoking||– Fast onset of effects
– Easy to control dosage
|– May cause respiratory issues
– Odor can be a concern
|Vaping||– Fast onset of effects
– Healthier alternative to smoking
– Easy to control dosage
|– May cause respiratory issues
– Requires special equipment
|Edibles||– Longer lasting effects
– No harmful smoke or vapor
|– Slow onset of effects
– Difficult to control dosage
– May be too strong for some users
|Tinctures||– Fast onset of effects
– Easy to control dosage
– Discreet consumption
|– May have a strong taste
– Sublingual absorption can be uncomfortable for some users
|Topicals||– No psychoactive effects
– Targeted relief for localized pain or discomfort
|– May not provide full-body relief
– Limited availability
Smoking and vaping offer the fastest onset of effects, making them ideal for those who need immediate relief. However, both methods may cause respiratory issues and produce a strong odor that can be a concern for some users.
Edibles provide a longer lasting, more intense high, but can take up to two hours to take effect. Controlling the dosage can be difficult, and some users may find them too strong.
Tinctures offer a fast onset of effects and allow for easy dosage control, making them a popular choice among medical cannabis users. However, they may have a strong taste, and sublingual absorption can be uncomfortable for some users.
Topicals don’t produce psychoactive effects, offering targeted relief for localized pain or discomfort. However, they may not provide full-body relief, and their availability can be limited in some areas.
When it comes to choosing a method of consumption, it’s important to consider your personal preferences and needs. Always start with a low dosage and increase gradually to avoid unwanted side effects.
Dosage and Timing
When it comes to using cannabis for anxiety and depression, it’s important to consider the dosage and timing in order to get the most benefit and avoid potential risks. Here are some key things to keep in mind:
- Start low and go slow: If you’re new to cannabis or have a low tolerance, it’s important to start with a low dose and gradually increase it over time. This will help you avoid the potential side effects of THC, such as anxiety, paranoia, and rapid heartbeat.
- Pay attention to the ratio: When choosing a strain or product, make sure to consider the THC to CBD ratio. As a general rule, higher ratios of CBD to THC are recommended for anxiety and depression. Start with a ratio of 1:1 or higher in favor of CBD, and adjust as needed based on your individual response.
- Consider the method of consumption: The way you consume cannabis can also affect the dosage and timing. For example, smoking or vaping can provide a more immediate effect, while edibles may take longer to take effect but can last longer. Be sure to read the label or ask the dispensary about recommended dosages and timing for the specific product you’re using.
- Avoid overuse: It’s important to use cannabis responsibly and avoid overuse, which can lead to tolerance, dependence, and potential negative effects on mental health. Stick to a regular dosing schedule and be mindful of your overall consumption.
- Consult with a healthcare professional: If you’re using cannabis for anxiety or depression, it’s important to discuss it with your healthcare provider, especially if you’re using other medications or have underlying health conditions. They can help you determine a safe and effective dose and timing based on your individual needs.
Finding the right dosage and timing for using cannabis for anxiety and depression requires careful consideration and experimentation. By starting low, paying attention to ratios and method of consumption, and consulting with a healthcare professional, you can maximize the benefits of cannabis while minimizing potential risks.
Cautions and Considerations
As with any substance, there are important cautions and considerations to keep in mind when using cannabis for anxiety and depression. While research suggests that cannabis can have potential benefits for these conditions, it is important to approach its use with care and attention to potential risks and side effects. Additionally, legal considerations must be taken into account, as the legality of cannabis varies by location and can have significant implications for users. In this section, we will explore the important factors to be aware of when using cannabis for anxiety and depression.
Risks and Side Effects
Cannabis, like any other medication, comes with some risks and side effects that are important to consider before using it for anxiety and depression. Some of the most common risks and side effects associated with cannabis use include:
- Mental Health: Cannabis use can potentially exacerbate certain pre-existing mental health conditions, including anxiety and depression. Additionally, long-term use of high-THC cannabis strains can increase the risk of developing a psychotic disorder, such as schizophrenia.
- Impaired Driving: Cannabis use can impair driving ability and increase the risk of car accidents. It is important to avoid driving or operating heavy machinery while under the influence of cannabis.
- Physical Health: Smoking cannabis can irritate the lungs and potentially lead to respiratory problems. Additionally, regular use of cannabis can lower sperm count and testosterone levels in men, and can disrupt menstrual cycles in women.
It is also worth noting that some people may experience side effects such as dry mouth, red eyes, and increased heart rate when using cannabis. These side effects are typically mild and resolve on their own.
If you are considering using cannabis for anxiety and depression, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits with a healthcare professional to determine if it is an appropriate treatment option for you. It is also important to use cannabis responsibly and follow recommended dosage guidelines to minimize potential risks and side effects.
It is important to consider the legal implications of using cannabis for anxiety and depression. Laws regarding cannabis use vary widely depending on location and can have serious consequences for individuals who violate them.
In the United States, cannabis remains illegal under federal law, although many states have legalized it for medical or recreational use. However, even in states where cannabis is legal, there may be restrictions on who can use it and how much they can possess. It is important to research the laws in your state and comply with any regulations to avoid legal trouble.
In Canada, cannabis is legal for recreational and medicinal use, although there are strict regulations surrounding its production and sale. It is important to purchase cannabis from licensed retailers and to follow any restrictions on possession and use.
Laws regarding cannabis use vary widely in other countries, and in some places, possession or use of cannabis can result in severe legal consequences, including imprisonment or fines. It is important to research the laws in your country and comply with any regulations to avoid legal trouble.
It is also important to note that even in places where cannabis is legal, it may still be illegal under certain circumstances, such as when driving or operating heavy machinery. It is important to always use cannabis responsibly and avoid any activities that could result in harm to yourself or others.
When it comes to using cannabis for anxiety and depression, there are a few other considerations to keep in mind. These include:
|Medical Conditions||People with certain medical conditions such as heart disease, lung disease, or a history of substance abuse should speak with their doctor before using cannabis for anxiety and depression.|
|Psychological Response||Cannabis affects everyone differently, and some people may have a negative psychological response to it, such as paranoia or anxiety. It is important to start with a low dose and monitor any psychological effects closely.|
|Tolerance and Dependence||Regular cannabis use can lead to tolerance and dependence, which can make it less effective for anxiety and depression. It is recommended to take breaks from cannabis use to avoid developing a tolerance or dependence.|
|Interactions with Medications||Cannabis can interact with certain medications, including antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications. It is important to speak with a healthcare provider before combining cannabis with any medications.|
|Age Restrictions||In many places, there are age restrictions for purchasing and using cannabis. It is important to be aware of these restrictions and follow them to avoid legal consequences.|
It is important to carefully consider these factors before using cannabis for anxiety and depression. While cannabis can be a helpful tool for managing these conditions, it is not a one-size-fits-all solution and may not work for everyone. It is always recommended to speak with a healthcare provider to determine if cannabis is a safe and appropriate option for you.
After carefully examining the research on using THC and CBD for anxiety and depression, the answer is not as black and white as one may hope. It ultimately depends on the individual, their genetics, and their specific symptoms. THC and CBD can both have potential benefits and drawbacks for those suffering from anxiety and depression.
As we explored in the article, THC can provide relaxation, euphoria, and a reduction in anxiety symptoms, but it also comes with potential side effects such as increased heart rate, paranoia, and addiction. On the other hand, CBD provides a calming effect, reduces symptoms of anxiety and depression, and has no psychoactive effects but may cause dry mouth, drowsiness, and changes in appetite.
When it comes to choosing the best THC to CBD ratio for anxiety and depression, it’s important to start low and go slow, to find what works best for you. Products with higher CBD levels may be more effective for anxiety and depression, while products with higher THC levels may be beneficial for general relaxation and stress relief.
Using cannabis for anxiety and depression should always be done with caution and under the guidance of a medical professional. It’s crucial to be aware of the potential risks and side effects associated with cannabis use, such as increased heart rate, impaired concentration, and addiction. Additionally, the legal considerations of cannabis use should also be taken into account, as laws and regulations around cannabis vary from state to state and country to country.
It’s important to keep in mind that while cannabis can be a potential form of treatment for anxiety and depression, it should not be viewed as a cure-all. It should be used as a part of a comprehensive treatment plan and in conjunction with therapy and/or medication if necessary.
In conclusion, while the effectiveness of cannabis for anxiety and depression may vary from person to person, it’s important to approach its use with caution and under the guidance of a medical professional. Cannabis can potentially provide relief for symptoms of anxiety and depression, but it is not a one-size-fits-all treatment.
Frequently Asked Questions
What other mental health conditions can cannabis be used for?
Cannabis has been shown to be effective in treating a variety of mental health conditions, including PTSD, bipolar disorder, and even schizophrenia. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional to determine if cannabis is a suitable treatment option for your specific condition.
Is it legal to use cannabis for anxiety and depression?
While many states in the US have legalized cannabis for either medical or recreational use, it is still illegal on a federal level. It is important to research and understand the laws in your specific location before using cannabis.
Can CBD be used without THC?
Yes, CBD can be extracted from the cannabis plant and used in various products without any THC content. These products are known as CBD isolate.
What is the entourage effect?
The entourage effect refers to the theory that the different compounds found in cannabis, such as THC and CBD, work together synergistically to provide enhanced therapeutic benefits.
What are the best strains for anxiety and depression?
Some of the best strains for anxiety and depression include Granddaddy Purple, Harlequin, and Jack Herer. It is important to experiment with different strains to find what works best for you.
What are the different methods of cannabis consumption?
Cannabis can be consumed in a variety of ways, including smoking, vaping, edibles, tinctures, and topicals.
Can cannabis worsen anxiety or depression symptoms?
While cannabis can have therapeutic benefits for some individuals with anxiety or depression, it can worsen symptoms in others. It is important to start with a low dosage and monitor how your body reacts to cannabis.
What are the side effects of using cannabis for anxiety and depression?
The most common side effects of cannabis use include dry mouth, red eyes, increased heart rate, and impaired memory and coordination. It is also possible to experience anxiety or paranoia as a side effect.
Can cannabis be addictive?
Cannabis can be addictive for some individuals, particularly those who use it regularly or in high doses. It is important to use cannabis responsibly and seek professional help if you are struggling with addiction.
Can I stop taking my prescribed medication if I start using cannabis?
No, it is important to consult with your healthcare professional before making any changes to your medication regimen. Cannabis should not be used as a substitute for prescribed medication without medical guidance.